SEMI International Standards
Standards New Activity Report Form (SNARF)
Revised (if Applicable):
New Standard: Test Method of Flicker Nuisance for Wide-Visual-Field Displays
Originating Global Technical Committee:
Flat Panel Display (FPD) - Metrology
Originating TC Chapter:
Task Force (TF) in which work is to be carried out:
Flexible Displays Task Force
Note: If a new task force is needed, also submit a task force organization form (TFOF)
a. Describe the need or problem addressed by this activity.
(Indicate the customer, what benefits they will receive, and if possible, quantify the impact on the return on investment [ROI] if the Document is implemented.)
Cheng (2012) reported that there were 18% cases responding to flicker nuisance in total of 126 public nuisance cases about Wide-Visual-Field Displays at night in Taiwan . Consequently, flicker has been shown to induce migraines and headaches, photosensitive epilepsy, and even increased autistic behaviours in certain people. Reduced task performance, stroboscopic or phantom array motion effects, distraction, and annoyance are other possible consequences (Poplawski & Miller, 2013) .
Frequency, modulation depth, and waveform have been shown to affect visual flicker sensitivity, and are known to be dependent upon duration and a number of visual factors or a kind of tasks. Nowadays, there are many metrics for flicker visibility included the contrast method, JEITA flicker value, IDMS flicker visibility, percentage flicker, flicker index, detection of stroboscopic effect, and acceptability of stroboscopic effect, etc. In addition, IEC 61000-4-15:2010 and V10 are standards well known for evaluation of the severity of voltage flicker. However, all of them can only be applied for regular waveforms or known fundamental frequency.
This test method aims to elucidate the measures of flicker nuisance from motion pictures on full color light emitting diode large format displays (LFD) for multi-media applications. This document will propose an objective flicker detection algorithm and present resultant examples on assessing flicker light from advertisement purpose. The results revealed that the 90th percentile of magnitude spectrum was a better measure for discomfort flicker. Finally, a flicker nuisance prediction model for dynamic lighting from a display is developed.
b. Estimate effect on industry.
2: Major effect on an industry sector - identify the relevant sector
Sector or Company Information:
c. Estimate technical difficulty of the activity.
II: Some Difficulty - Disagreements on known requirements exist but developing consensus is possible
Describe the technical areas to be covered or addressed by this Document development activity. For Subordinate Standards, list common concepts or criteria that the Subordinate Standard inherits from the Primary Standard, as well as differences from the Primary Standard:
It is our goal to rank the flicker nuisance on high dynamic range luminance using standard operators designed for motion pictures on wide-visual-field displays. When doing so, not only temporal incoherence of the minimum, maximum or average scene luminance leads to flicker, but also spatial incoherence of luminance distributions induces the disturbing flicker. This is reported by two experiments (Guthier et. al., 2011) . The first assumption we make is that flicker is sufficiently well detected by computing the luminance of a pixel and comparing it to the luminance of the previous frames. In this document, it can be considered that there were total of all pixels light-emitting on and off dependent on the contents of motion pictures frame by frame. The second assumption is that people are more sensitive to flicker in horizontal direction due to binocular vision. Therefore, we can deal with the objective flicker calculation row-by-row along the vertical direction of a frame. The document will demonstrate the flowchart of the objective flicker detection algorithm.
In this document, the color characterization model consisted of a 3x3 matrix for the primary transformation and three 1024-levels one-dimensional lookup tables used to describe the electro-optical transfer function of color channels. Based on the developed model, luminance of each pixel of a sequence of frames was calculated. Then we calculated the average luminance for each frame of the motion picture. The relative average luminance of pixels along vertical direction for each column frame-by-frame is shown.
After rearranging the resultants of color characterization, we perform the standard two-dimension discrete Fourier transform computed with a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Given an FFT chain, this study calculates the cumulative distribution of the frequency spectrum, and outputs the frequency value which corresponds to the desired percentile.
For example, to find the frequency at which 90% of FFT magnitude spectrum lies below that frequency, the 90-percentile means the value of fraction should be 0.9. The 90-percentile or 95-percentile is often used as a measure of spectral roll-off. The document will illustrate the FFT magnitude spectrum for some testing videos on displays. In order to find the suitable percentile to predict the subjective flicker nuisance, 90th, 75th and 50th percentiles of the spectral energy for each video are calculated.
Final, the document will demonstrate the relationships of objective flicker detection and subjective flicker score, and propose a flicker nuisance model for evaluating the wide-visual-field displays.
 CHENG, S. H., Pong, B. J. 2012. New Physical Public Nuisance Survey and Study. Report of Environmental Protection Administration of Executive Yuan of Taiwan. EPA-101-F105-02-207. (in Chinese)
 Poplawski, M.E., Miller, N.M. 2013. Flicker in solid-state lighting: Measurement techniques, and proposed reporting and application criteria. Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light”, Paris, France. 188-202.
 Guthier, B., Kopf, S., Eble, M. and Effelsberg, W. 2011. Flicker reduction in tone mapped high dynamic range video. Proc. SPIE 7866, Color Imaging XVI: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, 78660C
b: Expected result of activity
New Standard or Safety Guideline (including replacement of an existing Standard or Safety Guideline)
For a new Subordinate Standard, identify the Primary Standard here:
For Standards, identify the Standard Subtype below:
3. Projected Timetable for Completion:
a: General Milestones
a. Activity Start:
b. 1st Draft by:
c. (Optional) Informational Ballot by:
d. Letter Ballot by:
e. TC Chapter Approval By:
4. Liaisons with other Global Technical Committees/TC Chapters/Subcommittees/TFs:
List SEMI global technical committees, TC Chapters, subcommittees, or task forces in your or other Regions/Locales that should be kept informed regarding the progress of this activity. (Refer to SEMI Standards organization charts and global technical committee charters and scopes as needed.)
Materials & Components Committee
List any planned Type I Liaisons with external nonprofit organizations (e.g., SDO) that should receive Draft Documents from Standards staff for feedback during this activity and be notified when the Letter Ballot is issued (refer to Procedure Manual § 7):
will be issued – identify the recipient global technical committee(s):
Identify the recipient global technical committee(s):
Flat Panel Display (FPD) - Materials & Components
5. Safety Considerations:
The resulting document is expected:
NOT to be a Safety Guideline
to be a Safety Guideline
": When all safety-related information is removed from the Document, the Document is NOT technically sound and complete - Refer to Section 15.1 of the
for special procedures to be followed.
NOT to be a Safety Guideline
": When all safety-related information is removed from the Document, the Document is still technically sound and complete.
6. Intellectual Property Considerations:
For a new Standard or Safety Guideline and for any part to be modified or added in a Revision of published Standards and Safety Guidelines
the use of patented technology is NOT required.
If "patented technology is intended to be included in the proposed Standard(s) or Safety Guideline(s) " is selected above, then also check one:
For Revision, Reapproval, Reinstatement, or Withdrawal of existing Standard(s) and Safety Guideline(s):
The body of the Document and any Appendices, Complementary Files, Related Information sections, or Various Materials that may or may not be a part of the Document by reference:
the incorporation of Copyrighted Item will NOT be required
the use of patented technology or the incorporation of Copyrighted Item(s) is NOT required’
: If in the course of developing the Document, it is determined that the use of patented technology or Copyrighted Item(s) is necessary for the Document, the provisions of
§ 16 must be followed.
will incorporate Copyrighted Item’
: A copyright release letter must be obtained from the copyright owner prior to publication.
7. Comments, Special Circumstances:
TC Member Review:
took place between (put dates below ) before approval at the TC Chapter Meeting, or
Member Review Start Date;
Member Review End Date:
‘TC Member Review’ is required by the
for a period of at least two weeks
before approval of a new, or a major revision of an existing, Standard or Safety Guideline. (Refer to
9. SNARF Approval Dates:
TC Chapter or GCS
Recorded in TC Minutes
10. SNARF Extension Dates:
TC Chapter Extension Granted on
Extension Expires on